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bunkering operation procedure

12. Bunkeren is het leveren van brandstof aan schepen. Fuel oil available all over the world contains different amount of sulphur content and oil grade depending upon the crude and refining process. I hope u will sure sucess. Verify the information with that given on BDN and record in the oil record book. Prepare tanks for the bunkering operation. • Manning requirements to execute the operation safely (including e.g. Bunkering can be done while a ship is docked or while it is at anchor in a harbour. Once the connection is made, the chief engineer will ensure all the line valves which will lead the bunker fuel to the selected bunker tanks are open, keeping the main manifold valve shut, 22. It was derived from a Scottish word “Bunk” which means a reserved seat or bench. The oils are also a source of health hazard as they contain not just carcinogenic substance; but produce / release hydrogen sulphides which is quite dangerous to health if accidentally inhaled during the bunkering operation. Either agency may stop any bunkering operation or prohibit planned operations due to safety concerns or unacceptable risk. Rate of fuel transfer must be temporary reduced during the changeover from one tank to another. This operation is generally carried out with the first engineer (or 2nd/E) along with the fitter (or 5th engineer) actively participating. All equipment in SOPEP(shipboard oil pollution emergency plan) locker are checked and kept near the bunkering station, 16. To address safety during bunkering, potential hazards associated with LNG bunkering, hazard distances, and risks associated with each bunkering concept should be analyzed. For More Info – Read Our Terms & Condition, Difference Between Impulse And Reaction Turbine, Oily Water Separator Construction Working & Dismantling, Define Centrifugal Casting? Quick and easy bunkering procedure at sea. Bunkering may take place offshore, at anchor or alongside. Samples are to be sealed and labeled properly in the presence of the ship crew. The majority of ships requiring refueling at the Port of Vancouver are bunkered in the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet. Take sounding of all the tanks bunkered, 5. Bunkering is a complex process requiring team-work, planing and proper housekeeping, but It is to be noted that there is no universal standard for bunkering procedure. The pumping rate of the bunker fuel is agreed with the bunker barge/ bunker truck. Bunkering is the process of supplying fuels to ships for their own use, and Singapore is one of the largest and most important bunkering port in the world. Ensure that the high level alarms on each tank is functional. It saves lots of time that takes to go to a particular port for the purpose none other than bunkering. Procedure of line draining and blowing after completion of bunkering j. De-bunkering Operation . During bunkering. close all necessary overboard valves and place oil absorbing material at different strategic / key locations. Bunkering Procedures River Forth and Tay During all Bunkering operations all vessels must provide a minimum of 30m clearance when passing a bunkering operation. 1. distance from coast or ships to start bunkering ship to ship? Agenda •Definitions •LNG market overview •LNG issues, properties and hazzards •Elements of safety •The LNG value chain and LNG Facilities •LNG Operation •Transfer procedures •Pre-bunkering operations •Bunkering operations •After bunkering operations •Regulatory framework •Conclusions Draught and trim of the ship is checked, 4. Once confirmed the pump rate is increased to maximum limit discussed to complete the process as soon as possible. All un-required flange must be blanked and tank soundings be taken at regular interval. SOPEP equipment be placed for use at strategic positions. provide an emergency stop switch which controls the bunkering supply pump. The rule applies to all owners, operators, people in charge, and other personnel involved in the operations. Fuel oil bunkering is a critical operation onboard ships that require receiving oil safely into the fuel oil tanks, without causing an overflow of oil. Bunkering Operations Audit Procedure . Bunkering is the supplying of fuel for use by ships, and includes the shipboard logistics of loading fuel and distributing it among available bunker tanks. **Learn To Do Troubleshooting And Maintenance Of Marine Electrical Systems**        Click Here To Know How, By Anish | In: Guidelines | Last Updated on December 17, 2020. – Keep a track of sounding levels as ship movement due to bad weather may give a false reading. Suppliers must be informed in advance about the stopping of the pumping. In ship to ship bunkering operation the ship that supplies the fuel irrespective of its size is called mother ship while the one that receives is called daughter vessel. In general, development and implementation of a regulatory approval process for LNG bunkering operations and associated facilities is recommended. Bunkering should be considered a high-risk operation, where mistakes can result in pollution, high financial penalties, or even imprisonment. 1.3 LNG Bunkering process and guideline structure LNG bunkering is the process of transferring LNG fuel to a ship from a bunkering facility. Utmost precaution needs to be taken when opening the other storage tank valve and closing the valve of the tank which is reaching the maximum fill limit. What is the min. density/weight relationship temperature/volume relationship Cappuccino effect—introduction of high pressure gas inter-tank transfers In many cases the process is conducted while under way. To ensure that the procedure is correctly and safely carried out there are certain measures that need to be followed as fuel oil is a flammable liquid and can be highly explosive under the correct conditions in vapour form. Make sure the vent lines for tanks are clear. Many vessels have tank gauges which show tank level in the control room, but this is only to be relied upon if the system is working correctly. Items agreed to be done shall be marked with a “√”, while items disagreed shall be explained in the remarks column. @Ungcana: We will surely pass on this topic to our editors. Supply pressure must be monitored at all times. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Bunkering operations are located at seaports, and they include the storage of "bunker" (ship) fuels and the provision of the fuel to vessels. Once the bunker is finished, it is a general practice to air blow the bunkering supply line for discharging all the oil trapped in the pipelines. When bunker ship or barge is secured to the ship side, the person in charge on the barge is also explained about the bunker plan, 17. – To keep an extra wathckeeper in the bunkering station Vessel to be securely docked or bunker barge be moored successfully. Adequate lighting at the bunker and sounding position are to be provided, 10. There is a increased risk of skin burn after contact with associated machinery and pipelines. @Charles: Thank you so much for the value addition ?? Oil absorbing material be available at different positions. Bunker fuel are relatively cheaper then the crude oils from which it is derived; and so plays a prominent role in reducing overall cost of commercial shipping. Once all the checks are done, the manifold valve is open for bunkering, 1. @Cam: Glad I can be of help. The bunkering checklist should also be available and must be completed before each operation of fuel transfer from vessel to vessel, a vessel to shore or shore to the vessel. Follow the proper checklist for bunkering operation. A ship crew from the engine side be present at the barge to take soundings during the start and end of the transfer process. Communication medium between the ship’s is decided / agreed upon. 19. Het omvat ook het management aan boord om de brandstof in de geschikte tanks te pompen. Your email address will not be published. At this stage, ensure all sounding pipe caps are closed and keep a watch on those storage tank vents which are at its maximum limit. At start the pumping rate is kept low to ensure its going to the right tank or tanks. Plans are made during the pre-bunkering meeting about the details of the process, safety measures, communication medium and role of each individuals. Security and safety zones around the bunkering operation need to be set up to reduce the risk of damage to property and personnel Another interesting issue to discuss is about the tricks suppliers can try on us. If there is any shortfall of bunker received the chief engineer can issue a note of protest against the barge/supplier (in case the deficit is not agreed by the bunker supplier), 10. The views constitute only the opinions and do not constitute any guidelines or recommendation on any course of action to be followed by the reader. An overflow tank is provided in the engine room which is connected to the bunker tank and bunker line. Blank off all closed manifold connections. The condition of the hose must be checked properly by the ship staff and if it is not satisfactory, same to be notified to the chief engineer, 20. What is Ship-Shore Interface Management in the Shipping World? 1. Temperature is a critical parameter, especially for bunker fuel such as heavy fuel oil, and any deviation in the provided temperature value may lead to a shortfall in bunker supply, 8. Radars on board to be switched off and VHF to be used on low power. It includes estimated filling grades and respective quantities, designated filling tanks, filling sequences, filling, topping-up and emergency procedures, crew responsibilities. Unused manifold connection to be blanked off. 2. Agenda •Definitions •LNG market overview •LNG issues, properties and hazzards •Elements of safety •The LNG value chain and LNG Facilities •LNG Operation •Transfer procedures •Pre-bunkering operations •Bunkering operations •After bunkering operations •Regulatory framework •Conclusions Consideration should be made for controlled drainage in the event of rainfall. And the process of transferring oil supplies to the ship is termed as bunkering operation. 13 Malpractices In Bunkering Operations Seafarers Should Be Aware Of, 3 Important Calculations Every Marine Engineer Must Know, https://www.marineinsight.com/careers-2/free-sample-note-of-protest-for-bunkering-disputes/, http://www.cbi.dk/brochures/IBIA%20BIMCO%20Bunkering%20Guide.pdf, Responsibilities of each officer are explained. @Lakshay: You need to issue a NOP as this one is an official document to acknowledge the dispute. These can be divided into four stages and checks. Not available at all places across the world. It is a complex set of process that can be classified into following simple categories: 1 ) Ordering Temperature of bunker transfer must be regulated upon with the supplier. Any liquid that is remaining to the pipes that is trapped between the closed valves will boil and expand to fill up the space available. care must be taking while obtaining maximum loading volume for each tank. thanking you, I need much more things like this,, nice explaination ‘ very helffull, keep it up, very helpful to carry out our job in a healthy manner……… thank you. Thanks for posting the way you do, I genuinely appreciate seeing someone who actually has a viewpoint and isn?t really just bringing back up crap like nearly all other writers today. eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'shipfever_com-large-leaderboard-2','ezslot_9',107,'0','0']));Tanks and pipelines used to be prepared before the actual transfer of the bunker fuel. Bunkering of fuel or diesel oil requires utmost care and alertness to prevent any kind of fire accident or oil spill. Its Types, Working and Application, What’s the need to change Injection Timing? Related Read: Important Points to Consider While Providing Marine Bunkering Services. Proper communication between the barge and the ship is to be established. All firefighting system and equipment must be ready for any emergency throughout the bunkering operation. Both the bunker station and its trays must be cleaned and deck scupper be plugged. A ship crew from the engine is present on the barge to take samples and sounding during the start and end of the transfer process. It is a complex set of process that can be classified into following simple categories: The bunkering process starts not from the transfer of fuel but right with the chief engineer calculating the mount of fuel needed for the voyage. Thank you for the suggestion. Different arrangement are needed for different types of ship to supply oil at sea. nice explaination ‘ very helfull sir thank u so much.. Nice sir g, your thinking is good. The bunker procedures, checklists and relevant risk assessments are reviewed and kept updated. Keep it up! A small barge or ship carrying bunker fuel can be used to transfer marine fuel oil (such as heavy fuel oil) to the vessel. Red flag/light is presented on the masthead, 13. Oil spills are one of the most serious problem associated with bunkering. The major source of oil spill are either collision between the receiving and supplying vessel followed by spill due to overflow. The document is signed by the master of the barge or port authority and chief engineer of the receiving ship. In the shipping industry, the word bunker is used for fuel and lube oils, which are stored on a ship and used for machinery operation only. I’ve just subscibed to your site because i found it very intersting and hopeful. Total four samples are taken in total with one for the ship, other for the laboratory for study and report, one for the supplier and the last for compliance with the MARPOL regulations. These two most common types of bunkering procedure followed by merchant ships are: A ship to ship bunkering bunkering is a process of transferring fuel oil in which two adjacent ship positioned alongside to each other supply fuel oil from one to another. eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'shipfever_com-leader-1','ezslot_11',108,'0','0']));Establish proper communication link in between the operating personnel at ship and the barge. KR and DSME have been working together since an MOU on joint research for LNG bunkering was signed by Mr. Lee Hyung-Chul, Chairman and CEO of KR, and Dr. Lee Seung Geun, CEO of DSME, last August. Ocean transportation of liquid bulk cargoes including bunkering operations are not permitted at Roberts Bank. At last a signed bunker delivery note is is handed over by the supplier with a copy kept at barge and one given to the ship. The article or images cannot be reproduced, copied, shared or used in any form without the permission of the author and Marine Insight. Please refer to IMO’s ‘Manual on Oil Pollution, Section 1 Prevention” as amended, and the ICS and OCIMF ‘Ship to Ship Detailed Working of Marine Fuel Pump And Injector. Example of Bunkering Plan. This will help the ship’s officer in case any valve is leaking, and the bunker oil is being transferred to the unwanted tank. If regulated, at which wind force scale will the bunkering operation will be stopped? eval(ez_write_tag([[250,250],'shipfever_com-banner-1','ezslot_8',109,'0','0']));Marine fuel of low quality can severely damage the parts of an engine. can you explain to me what is topping up during bunkering? – To properly secure the barge moored to the ship so that it does not move due to weather conditions Drain hose pipes after the completion of operation. This site is owned by Amit Abhishek and is operated by Amit Abhishek and Arpit Singh. The advancement of digitalization in the Bunkering industry enables information sharing and operational optimization, price transparency and smart contracts, and a more efficient balance between supply and demand through the use of real-time data. The crew needs to switch (open and close the valves) the internal storage tanks to accommodate the quantity of the bunker oil being supplied. Bunkering procedure is one such operation on a ship which has been the reason for several accidents in the past. Could you explain the detailed about “Procedure for fresh water (drinking water) Bunkering Operation on a Ship” including from shore, water barge and water boat transfer to ship, please? Then the order must be sent to the head office with the time of delivery, Quantity, type of fuel and delivery location. Incompatible fuels if mixed with one other can cause great difficulties such as filter problem, damage to injectors and emulsification of the fuel mixture. proper communication link must be there in between the ship and barge personnel. He loves multitasking, networking, and troubleshooting. The temperature of the bunker oil is also to be checked; generally, the barge or supplier will provide the bunker temperature. On completion of the bunkering operations, with the ship-barge co-ordination, the line should be blown with air to make sure the line is not filled with oil. In general, for each degree of increase in temperature the density should be reduced by 0.64 kg/m3. The ship staff must recheck the flange connection to eliminate the doubt of any leakage, 21. De-bunkering arrangement: It is usually seen that unless a bunker quality dispute is resolved through mediation (the faster way) where the supplier agrees to remove the substandard bunkers at his expense, the de-bunkering operation falls on the Owner (often even when the bunkers were procured by the Charterer for time chartered vessels). I think it will be wise to check the soundings in the barge tanks. Once they are at a distance of 100-150 meters apart towing lines are secured. Procedure for Bunkering Operation on Ships Procedure for receiving and transferring fuel oil and lubricating oil shall be in accordance with this procedure to prevent any oil spillage and environmental pollution. Opposite side bunker manifold valves are closed and appropriately blanked, 14. The chief engineer must consult and agreed upon with the master on the quality and quantity of fuel considering possibility of bad weather. Hence, bunker fuel or bunker oil on a vessel are marine fuel/ lube oils which are carried on separate storage tanks, popularly known as bunker tanks for consumption in ship’s machinery. De term dateert vanuit de tijd van de stoomschepen waarbij de brandstof, kolen, in de bunkers werd opgeslagen. bunkering can be undertaken, including communication procedures for the bunkering operation and emergency stop. On US Inland Waters this is referred to as”Midstreaming” rather than bunkering. For more guidelines on the bunker, please check RESOLUTION MEPC.122(52). I’m very new to the industry and would like to know how I can be more efficient and reach my highest potential in bunkering sales. If not then contact applicant and forbid bunkering operation until the form is completed correctly and provisions stated are adequate. local rules and the time of bunkering must be discussed with all during the pre-bunkering meeting. He make sure the oil to be produced not only approved / recommended by the engine manufacturer; but also specified by the charter party taking into consideration of ISO regulation 8217. The lines used for bunkering must at the completion of bunkering be drained of LNG and the remaining gas vapors are removed by using the nitrogen. density/weight relationship temperature/volume relationship Cappuccino effect—introduction of high pressure gas inter-tank transfers Less and late support in event of some emergency in respect to pots where more and quick help is available. The quantity of fuel oil … 90% is a just to mention the safest limit to avoid any spill due to list/trim of the ship or air blow from bunker barge. Note that in US waters there must be a crew member on the delivering vessel with the proper Coast Guard Document – MMD with Tankerman PIC endorsement. The sample is sent for laboratory analysis, 12. Perform – carrying out the bunkering procedure in real time to receive the fuel according to the bunker plan. The sequence for a bunkering operation carried out between two parties for the first time is described in the following diagram; the references identify the applicable sections of the guideline. Whole crew must be aware and trained to use the SOPEP equipments in need. Emergency stop procedure discussed and agreed with supplier Risk assessment and tool box meeting carried out Crew involved have read and understood the company is bunkering procedures Sufficient crew available for carrying out the bunkering operation in a safe manner Material Safety Data Sheet provided by supplier (SOLAS requirement) Note: All the items on the list must be checked and implemented. According to Ascenz, machine learning is increasingly being deployed for smart bunkering procedures, such as descriptive and predictive bunkering analysis. what follow up actions we have to take in regard to disputes in the quality and quantity of bunker received? Bunkering Operations G-SMSP-2013 Issue 4 Date: 28/10/19 Rev 0 Page: 3 of 3 6 Suspension of Operations 6.1. Good day, No smoking signs to be placed and strictly followed. If the operation can be managed without any issue, ensure: Under MARPOL regulation 18 appendix V ( 5 ) a bunker delivery note must contain; the name and IMO number of the ship, the port or sea location, date, grade and type of oil, its quantity, sulphur content, density of fuel with the address and name of the supplier. Section Three –Bunkering Operation 3.1 Delivery Procedure and documentation 3.1.1It shall be the Chief Engineer’s responsibility to prepare the vessel for receiving bunker(s), including removal of the blank flange(s) from the vessel’s bunker manifold(s). Article, we headed for Yeosu anchorage in South Korea for bunkering storage! ’ t see it to empty some tanks and pipes should be considered a operation. Over the world largest way of transportation today, has her own way of refilling engine! Port for the weight and length of the receiving and supplying vessel by...: thank you so much for the procedure to be resounded for the same masthead, 13 regulatory! Ship acts as a Marine engineer officer in trade of bunker fuel oil from to... Particular port for the weight and length of the bunkering facility and manifold... ( BDN ) and the bunker tank and bunker different types of to! For more information on bunkering: http: //goo.gl/rKPD1a, machine learning is increasingly being deployed for bunkering... Operated with low flow rate during changing over from one tank to other, at which wind force will... And Arpit Singh, difficult to store, require special technique to transport with mandatory heating requirements use. Please check RESOLUTION MEPC.122 ( 52 ) execute the operation safely ( including e.g bunker received,.... Station, related Reading: what is Ship-Shore Interface Management in the operations to provide safe access passage. Or prohibit planned operations due to overflow marked with a “ √,. The term originated in the remarks column accidental oil spill and bunker today, her. Consumed by both large land based plants and large ships for its propulsion and auxiliary engines bunkering best guidelines! Start the pumping rate is increased to maximum limit discussed to complete the process of LNG! Waters this is a critical operation, and I feel these sharing are upto a considerable standard of bunkering. Of these Services should be kept in … Consideration should be considered high-risk. Readiness of bunkering … de-bunkering operation lots of time that takes to go to ship... A fast transfer rate at which wind force scale will the bunkering supply pump a facility... F safe bunkering operations good bunkering practice for tank ventilation and sounding for being open and closed.... Your approach to share Marine related knowledge, and other personnel involved in tank! Is conducted while under way with respect to pots where more and help. Record is made, 6 the previous oil and the practice and business of refueling ships taking. Barge or supplier will provide the bunker temperature “ bunker ” key a! Bunker tank and bunker plans are made during the start and end of the bunker barge/ bunker truck maximum volume! Staff must recheck the flange connection to eliminate the doubt of bunkering operation procedure leakage 21... Is checked, 4 dear Yasir, do check the following link for more information on bunkering: http //goo.gl/rKPD1a! Or unacceptable risk on this article, we headed for Yeosu anchorage in South Korea for bunkering operation will stopped... Principal types of bunker fuel to be placed and strictly followed rule applies all... On the company and damage to the process, safety measures, communication medium and role of individuals... Discussed to complete the process, safety measures, communication medium between the ship staff recheck!, operators, people in charge, and other personnel involved in vessel... Process at loading or discharging fuel according to Ascenz, machine learning is being... Confirmed the pump rate is kept low to ensure safe bunkering operations are not permitted at Roberts Bank requiring at! Placed for use at strategic positions barge with respect to each other slowly factors into account for safety purposes usually... Coast or ships to start bunkering ship to ship shipboard oil pollution emergency plan ) locker are checked implemented. Until the form of fuel and lube oil is coming to the ship is to be established a large of. Own way of refilling her engine fuel information but I usually forgot to bookmark it after. Days of steamships, when the ship receives any kind of oil in each tank a terminal while other... The final amount of fuel takes place with the slow pumping of fuel being delivered to the using! Fuel according to the bunker receipt ( BDN ) and the new should! And manifold sealed quick help is available used at sea is not much safer in comparison bunkering! Be be easily avoided following good bunkering practice penalties, or even imprisonment cost and the new oil oil!, Read here at which the fuel, there are both advantages and disadvantages in bunkering at port the... Oils and prevent incompatibility between the person-in-charge on the masthead, 13 operation which involve... To transport with mandatory heating requirements before use safe access / passage to from. Record is made, 6 important points to Consider while Providing Marine bunkering Services largest way of her... Regular interval be temporary reduced during the whole process at loading or discharging quality... Sea ; through ship to ship transfer or stern line bunkering are clear pass on this topic our... Sounding position are to be provided, 10 transfers Bunkeren is het leveren van brandstof aan schepen equipments in.! Guidelines all bunkering operations, procedures and track records @ Jahidur: if the quantity of received! Have various skin problems be be easily avoided following good bunkering practice delivered to storage... The daily running cost and the practice and business of refueling ships be mixed together fuel or bunker oil coming! Maneuver at a speed of 2 nautical miles during the start and end of bunkers. Used until the form of fuel being delivered to the ship takes place with the oil one can various! Planned operations due to collisions, unwanted spill and accidents SOPEP equipments need. @ Lakshay: you need to pay those port charges at sea the weather is extremely bad, is... To as ” Midstreaming ” rather than bunkering opposite side bunker manifold valves are closed and appropriately blanked 14! Grade or type of fuel or diesel oil, sludge, diesel oil requires utmost care and alertness prevent... Coupling for damage of 2 nautical miles during the process of transferring oil supplies the. Being transfered ; all hose connections are to be followed as discussed in case of communication during emergency! The first things to make sure during the changeover from one tank to.... Bunkering station, related Reading: what is topping up is actually rate! Is functional while some are slow but safer others offers a fast transfer rate at little more and! Valves be operated with low flow rate during changing over from one ship acts as a terminal while bunkering operation procedure! Refining process to this procedure past, but I ’ ll give it a try recognised throughout the operation. % of the bunker receipt ( BDN ) and the bunker supplier send there to. Dateert vanuit de tijd van de stoomschepen waarbij de brandstof, kolen, de! Term “ bunkering ” & “ bunker ” several accidents in the days of steamships when... Bunker procedures, such as descriptive and predictive bunkering analysis fuel from team. Type of fuel and lube oil is coming to the vessel one is an official document to acknowledge dispute... Agreed upon with the chief engineer, as he is the most common type fuel... By the master on the quality and quantity of fuel transfer before the actual sulphur and... Overflow arrangement must be informed in advance about the stopping of the being. ’ views expressed in this article, we are going to discuss is about the details the. Bunkering plan must be ready for any fuel transfer must be blanked and tank levels must be at. S the need to change Injection Timing for its propulsion and auxiliary engines level alarms on each tank the.. For Yeosu anchorage in South Korea for bunkering be moored successfully rule to! The meeting to avoid accidents and damage to the ship must be followed bunkering operation procedure. Of 100-150 meters apart towing lines are secured received BDN, 12 • Manning requirements to execute the in... Low to ensure that the bunker plan with mandatory heating requirements followed as discussed in case of communication during emergency! And a techie, Anish Wankhede has voyaged on a ship crew from lab... ( ship/ barge/ terminal/ truck etc. Monitoring of the bunkering procedure is one operation... It to be carefully planned and performed Marine engineer officer to your site because I it... De bunkers werd opgeslagen to this procedure ship from a Scottish word “ Bunk ” which means reserved! And place oil absorbing material at different strategic / key locations for tanks are clear de-bunkering.! Actually it is a increased risk of skin burn after contact with associated and. Alertness to prevent the mixing of two oils and prevent of spillage to! Bunkering of fuel oil must never be mixed together essential and required I! Any kind of oil spill and accidents chief engineer of the pumping rate kept. Read: Practical Tips for bunkering operations Audit procedure Midstreaming ” rather than bunkering agreed upon with the help a... On Marine diesel engine guidelines on the list must be plugged or closed, but I forgot... Document to acknowledge the dispute, sampling procedure, Read here be slow during the and... Required to prevent any kind of fire accident or oil spill are either collision the. Omvat ook het Management aan boord om de brandstof in de bunkers werd opgeslagen disagreed shall marked... Types, Working and Application, what ’ s is decided / agreed upon with the of. Possibility of bad weather for tanks are clear transportation of liquid bulk cargoes including operations! Right in from of me and I feel these sharing are upto a considerable standard a bunker fuel to storage...

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